History

 

It’s well-known, that some countries are called by the name of the people abiding there, others – in accordance with the geographic and administrative name defining the name of the region’s population. According to F. Macler “Armenia, the geographic region, which has this name from ancient times, was not the permanent abode of people called Armenians…certainly, people with different language lived in this country.” (F.Macler. La nation Armenienne. Son Passe. Ses malheurs. Paris, 1924, p. 18-19). Another historian – Pastermadijan, writes: “Emergence of Armenian people, related to Indo-European group of people, in the East, in Armenia, together with Kimmerians and Frakians, who were related to the same group, tracking from the West through the Balkans and Asia Minor, dates back to 7th and 6th centuries BC. This hypothesis is already acknowledged by many specialists.” (H. Pastermadijan. Histoire de l’Armenie. Paris, 1949, p.23)

Thus we come to conclusion that from ancient times a definite region has been known as Armenia. The people, whom we call Armenians, migrated into this region from the West. Date of this migration is 7th-6th centuries BC. Since that time they submitted to different tribes until Cyrus of Persian Empire subdued them. After the victory of Alexander the Great over Persians in 331 BC Armenia was absorbed by Macedon Empire. After Alexander’s death in 323 BC wars of succession divided the empire among his generals. In 301 BC after the final devision Armenia became a part of Salucia. The state ruled by Salucian Dinasty, existed till 189 BC and was conquered by Rome in 66 BC. Different sources say that till the fall of Salucian Empire Armenia was governed by two rulers of Persian origin – Artaksiyax and Zariardis. After the victory of Romans they acknowledged protection of Roman senate. But since 95 BC Armenian leader Tigran, using temporary weakness of Rome as the result of so-called “social wars” inside the empire, and when Arshakids were busy by fighting against Saks, he unified all feudal dukes under his rule, added vast lands and established considerable state. But this independence lasted for 30 years and Tigran’s state was annihilated by Roman general Pompey in 66 BC. Armenian ideologists still call this state “Great Armenia” of Tigran and regard him almost as a saint. But it’s obvious that contemporary Armenia have the same rights for the lands forcefully seized by Tigran, as contemporary Italy or Iran have rights for the vast territories of Roman and Persian Empires respectively.
In 53 BC Arshakids of Persia defeated Roman army, and Armenia was conquered by the former. But the struggle for Armenia between Rome and Persia lasted for 63 years and ended by famous compromise: Armenia remained under rule of Rome, but the ruler had to be chosen from Arshakid dynasty. In 301 AD the ruler of Armenia (from dynasty of Persian Arshakids) accepted Christianity, but it took many decades until all Armenians accepted this religion. A great contribution to the victory of Christianity in Armenia was made by Byzantium, and this became the reason of Persian-Byzantine war, which finally divided Armenia in 390. Later, in 653 Armenia was annexed by Arabs, who ruled this country till 970, when Byzantium began the war against Arab Caliphate to return Armenia. But already in 1020 Turkic tribes of Oguz began their invasion and totally conquered Armenia. After domination of Seljuk Turks in Armenia, it was ruled by Horezm-shahs (1194), Il-khans (1258), Jalayirs (1334), Teymurids (1383), Ag-Koyunlu (1450), Safavids (1510). In 1555 during the war between Safavids and Ottoman Empire, Armenia was divided between them: Ottomans conquered Western Armenia, and Eastern Armenia remained under the rule of Safavids, until it was seized by Russian Empire in 1828.
If we don’t take into account the short period of Armenian independence (1920-1922), then Armenia became independent only in 1991, after the collapse of the USSR. Therefore all claims of Armenia for independence and unique state-hood culture are radically unjustified, as well as their claims for the lands, forcefully seized by Tigran, are not justified. Having a lack of state-hood, Armenians for centuries tried to gain independence and self-determination in the struggle with their neighbors. But they could not attain this goal. And as the result of constant slavish existence and aspiration to survive at any cost – first of all on account of others, Armenian nationalists acquired specific features, such as terror against Turks in Ottoman Empire, and against Azeris in 1905, 1918, 1923, 1936, 1948, 1988. This terror resulted with many hundreds of thousands of Azeri victims; Armenian military-revolutionary parties, such as “Dashnaktsutyun” and “Gnchak”, were established exactly for terrorist purpose. Armenian terrorists became very well known by organizing assassinations of employees of Turkish embassies in many capitals of the world in 70-s and 80-s. Terrorist essence of Armenian pseudo-patriots also displayed in October of 1999, when a group of terrorists (from “Dashnaktsutyun”) captured Armenian parliament, killed the Prime minister, the Speaker, and a number of parliament members. Inflamed by imaginary “ideology” and led by Armenian Church, Armenian chauvinists became certain in their infallibility and started uncovered aggression against Azerbaijan. But the most dangerous thing for the international community is Armenian racism. Having believed in exclusiveness of “Armenian race”, which takes its origins almost from “ancient Armenian ape” – the ancestor of all human race, Armenian nationalists have a great desire to establish “Great Armenia”. According to this plan Armenian fanatics intend to seize the territories between Black, Mediterranean, and Caspian seas, totally enslaving and extirpating all “lower tribes and nations”. And contemporary Karabakh problem is the first step to attain this racist idea. You should take under consideration, that the Armenian claims for Karabakh are absolutely groundless. From ancient times Karabakh was a constituency of states, which included the territories of contemporary Azerbaijan, and even during the time of Armenian independence the Azeri nation was able to defend its original lands from foreign invaders.
And until the annexation of Transcaucasia by Russia, Azeris were dominating not only in Karabakh, but also in the whole region. Certainly, Russian Tsarism was not interested in keeping Azeris as a dominating nation in the region after two Russian-Iranian wars (1804-1828), and Russian-Turkish war of 1828. Therefore in order to secure the new southern frontiers of Russian Empire, tsar Nicolas I encouraged migration of Russians into these territories. But at the same time Armenians with total number of 124,000 entered Karabakh from Iran and Turkey. What was the reason of such active Armenian migration? And the reason was, that Armenians in Turkey and Iran were subjected to repression, because during the latest wars with Russian Empire Armenian population made a great contribution to the success and victories of Russians by organizing revolts and uprisings in the interior of Turks and Persians. Therefore Russia included into Turkmenchay Peace Treaty of 1828 paragraph #15, which demanded to leave borders between Iran and Russia open to let Armenians enter Russian territory. And in order to strengthen its influence in the region, Russia settled them in Karabakh setting balance between its friends and enemies. Since that time Armenians started their continuous penetration into these lands; these streams intensified especially during aggravation of relations of Russia with Iran and Turkey. Finally during Soviet regime bolsheviks attempted to annihilate Azeri independence by granting autonomy to Armenian immigrants in Karabakh in 1923. The systematic eviction of Azeris from their native lands grew into a large-scale ousting, which was ignored by Soviet government. At last, when the proper time has come – and it was weakening of the Soviet Empire – Armenian nationalists began the realization of the idea of “Great Armenia” and organized revolts in Karabakh.
You should also know, that the word “Karabakh” is an original Azeri word and means “black mountains”. The word “Artsakh”, which is used by Armenians to call Karabakh, originates from Albanian words “Ar Sak” and means “manly Sak” (Albanians – the ancestors of contemporary Azeris – named these lands in commemoration of Saks, who lived here side by side with them). Thus, in 1988 Armenian chauvinists started the war against Azerbaijan.Contemporary Armenia is the same destabilizing factor in the region as it was Germany in the first half of 20th century in Europe. Inflamed by racist – fascist idea to establish “Great Reich”, Armenian leaders would not be able to begin the war with impunity, if afterwards Armenia was not supported by her eternal ally – Russia; and the latter strives to restore the empire. Expanding for centuries, Russia at the time of Peter the Great set its main goal – access to the mild southern seas. And in order to attain this goal Russia had to conduct incessant wars against Turkey from 18th till 20th century. Armenians played a significant role in this struggle. And today, we should remind, Armenia is an official ally of Russian Federation. Armenia receives not just economic and moral support from the big brother. Russia actively provides Armenia with arms. This policy is aimed to increase the tension in the region, because Russia aspires to extend the region, because Russia aspires to extend the conflict between two nations – Azeri and Armenian – adroitly using the principle “separate and rule”. And Armenian nationalists, possessed by racist and fascist ideas, assist the realization of Russian plans. And Azerbaijan is just the first stage. It is very likely to be continued by Armenian aggression against Georgia, Turkey and other nations in the region. That’s why the aggression of racist Armenian national-fascists must be stopped.
While the Russian dream of universal domination and access to the southern seas persists, then Armenian fascist idea will not be eradicated and Armenia will remain (for the sake of Russian desires) the major destabilizing power in the region.By Turkhan Sadikhov
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